Acquisition, Development and Implementation of Information System 

5.4 System Development Methodology



The waterfall approach is a traditional development approach in which each phase is carried in sequence or linear fashion. These phases include requirements analysis, specifications and design requirements, coding, final testing, and release. In this traditional approach of system development, activities are performed in sequence.


The characterizing features of this model have influenced the development community in big way. Some of the key characteristics are the following:

  • Project is divided into sequential phases, with some overlap and splash back acceptable between phases.
  • Emphasis is on planning, time schedules, target dates, budgets and implementation of an entire system at one time.
  • Tight control is maintained over the life of the project through the use of extensive written documentation, as well as through formal reviews and approval/signoff by the user and information technology management occurring at the end of most phases before beginning the next phase

(MNEMONICS) {in Hindi}

If you haven't watched the Mnemonic video where the techniques are explained then watch it here.

DO watch the video to understand the linkage.


Waterfall mai PEN gir gaya
isse yad rakhna ki Waterfall(Model) mai Pen gir gaya, Pen se yad ana chayea Picture technique
Bcoz "1" ata hai Picture technique mai sabse phele aur "1" Pen jaisa dikhta hai.

10=Bat & Ball

[1-5 tak Strengths hai, 6-10 tak Weakness hai]

See this picture for better understanding then i'll link this to actual Strengths & Weaknesses of Waterfall Model

Strengths: {Content in these brackets include Mnemonics story} {English/Hindi}

  • It is ideal for supporting less experienced project teams and project managers or project teams, whose composition fluctuates: BOAT {Boat is an ideal way to travel for less experienced project teams i.e jinko swimming nhi ati}

  • The orderly sequence of development steps and design reviews help to ensure the quality, reliability, adequacy and maintainability of the developed software: DUCK {Duck walks in an orderly sequence i.e Duck ek k pitche pitche chalti hai}

  • Progress of system development is measurable: SPECS {Optician specs lga ke progress measure karta hai}

  • It enables to conserve resources: PEN {Ball Pen use kar ke hum conserve karte hai resources}
[Sirf 4 points to "5" vala chord do, leave it blank]

Weakness: {Content in these brackets include Mnemonics story} {English/Hindi}

  • It is criticized to be inflexible, slow, costly, and cumbersome due to significant structure and tight controls: HOCKEY {Hockey slow, costly & cumbersome game hai jisme tight controls hote hai}

  • Project forward, with only slight movement backward.

  • There is a little to iterate, which may be essential in situations: WATERFALL {Waterfall is one way i.e it progresses forward with little scope of backward i.e Waterfall age to jata hai par pitche nhi ata}

  • It depends upon early identification and specification of requirements, even if the users may not be able to clearly define 'what they need early in the project'.

  • Requirement inconsistencies, missing system components and unexpected development needs are often discovered during design and coding.

  • Problems are often not discovered until system testing: DAMROO {Dambroo mai problem tab tak nhi pata chal sakti jab tak dambroo test nhi kiya ho}

  • System performance cannot be tested until the system is almost fully coded, and under capacity may be difficult to correct.

  • It is difficult to respond to changes, which may occur later in the life cycle, and if undertaken it proves costly and are thus discouraged: BALLOON {Balloon ki shape agar change karna chahenge to vo Burst ho jayega i.e Difficult to respond to change}

  • It leads to excessive documentation, whose updation to assure integrity is an uphill task and often time-consuming: BAT & BALL {Matches se related itni excessive documentation hoti hai jisko banana ek time consuming task hai like total score, total sixes, fours, centuries, half centuries etc}

  • Written specifications are often difficult for users to read and thoroughly appreciate.

  • It promotes the gap between users and developers With clear vision of responsibility.

[These Mnemonics only cover 5-5 points, rest you can do it on your own]


Video Coming Soon........ Stay tuned!



  1. Sir a big thank you for your great efforts that are helping us amazingly well.
    Hindi English blogs are totally cool since they make the mnemonics more interactive!
    For me these methodologies were the toughest to learn apart from chapter 7(not so interesting for me)..
    So I am unable to articulate my gratitude for making ISCA so very easy!

  2. First to all, Thanku so much sir for these videos..
    But retaining the story and connecting it to the points become easy when u draw the pictures as in earlier videos..

  3. Thanks a lot... 1 month before exams... It is helping a lot :) fear from isca has been substantially reduced!

  4. Hats off to your efforts... Thank you...

  5. Can you please upload memory techniques for chapter 3, it's the most difficult chapter for memorising.

  6. Thanks a lot for your efforts!! You have made learning fun! :)

  7. That is very interesting; you are a very skilled blogger. I have shared your website in my social networks! A very nice guide. I will definitely follow these tips. Thank you for sharing such detailed article.

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  8. Sir thanks a ton for making ISCA easy for me....